Restrictive pulmonary syndrome refers to a decrease in ventilatory capacity. This phenomenon can occur in many pathologies. Not to be confused with the obstructive syndrome associated with asthma or COPD.
The restrictive syndrome is characterized by restriction of total lung capacity, often associated with a decrease in vital capacity, leading to a reduction in mobilizable lung volume during inspiration and expiration. Most often it is detected during respiratory function tests. “The restrictive syndrome is opposed to obstructive syndrome which results in obstruction of expiratory flows and which is linked to asthma or a pathology related to smoking such as COPD. Pathologies that can cause a restrictive syndrome are fibrosing pulmonary pathologies making the lung more rigid (more difficult to inflate), pleural pathologies, neuromuscular diseases, obesity and chest wall/chest deformities. The result is alveolar hypoventilation which leads to an accumulation of C02 in the blood.“, specifies Dr Maxens Decavèle, resuscitator at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital.
Many pathologies can cause a restrictive syndrome:
“The restrictive syndrome is mainly manifested by dyspnea (unpleasant and agonizing feeling of lack of air, difficulty in breathing)) with effort then with the slightest effort then at rest when the disease progresses, orthopnea (shortness of breath when lying down), repeated lung infections, morning headaches, sleep disorders and severe fatigue“, indicates the resuscitator doctor.
The diagnosis of restrictive syndrome is based on spirometry, a test to assess the functioning of the lungs. More specifically, spirometry aims to measure the amount of air in the lungs (lung volumes) and the airflows during exhalation. This examination is part of the functional respiratory tests (EFR).
The management of restrictive pulmonary syndrome is based on the treatment of the cause (acute neuromuscular disease, pulmonary involvement of autoimmune diseases, etc.). “Sometimes, respiratory involvement may progress to chronic respiratory failure and require the start oflong-term oxygen therapy or even non-invasive ventilation using an artificial home ventilator“, adds Dr. Maxens Decavèle.
Thanks to Dr Maxens Decavèle, resuscitator at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital
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