More and more couples have concerns about having a baby. Whether it is a problem of infertility in women or in men, several medical techniques can help start a pregnancy.
At each cycle, a 25-year-old woman with normal sexual activity has a 20% chance of being fertilized. It is therefore rare to be pregnant exactly at the desired time.
In case of failure, it is therefore advisable towait at least a year before taking steps with a specialist. He will prescribe, at the start, examinations such as hormonal assays, sperm analyses, possibly a pelvic ultrasound… before establishing the notion of infertility and its causes.
When the diagnosis is made, there are different techniques, called assisted reproduction techniques (PMA) which are offered to parents according to their physiological difficulties. In France, 2.4% of births are from an MAP.
This technique is used in several cases:
Before insemination, hormonal stimulation of the ovaries is performed in order to improve ovulation.
Artificial insemination then consists of inject sperm (collected after masturbation or by direct collection from the testicles) directly into the uterus on the day of ovulation with the help of a pipette.
Artificial insemination with spouse’s sperm currently accounts for 45% of LDCs.
In case of male sterility, one resorts to a donor sperm.
This technique involves bringing together sperm and eggs outside the uterus.
Generally, IVF is used for women with fallopian tube problems (which can be altered or clogged preventing sperm from reaching the egg),endometriosispoor quality cervical mucus,polycystic ovaries (no egg production) or in men with reduced sperm quality or quantity.
Before in vitro fertilization, the woman will have had hormonal treatments that promote the maturation of several eggs at the same time. The eggs are collected and brought together with the spermatozoa (collected by masturbation), in a tube or a culture dish.
The fertilization and then the division of the eggs are monitored under a microscope. After 3 days, 3 eggs are implanted in the uterus. Other unused embryos can be frozen for later reuse.
The chances of success of an IVF fall according to age: 22% up to 35 years old, 19% from 35 to 37 years old, 16% from 38 to 39 years old, 12% from 40 to 41 years old and 4% from 42 to 44 years old.
The fertilization by micro-injection or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a recent technique. It is similar to IVF, except that the sperm is injected directly into the egg.
This technique is used when there are too few sperm in the semen. If there are none at all, they can even be taken directly from the male genital ducts and testicles. The success rate of this technique is about 30%.
In France, medically assisted procreation is not authorized only among married couples or cohabiting couples living together for at least 2 years and of childbearing age. The couple must complete a consent form, make a request for prior agreement and request an exemption from the moderating ticket so that the care is taken at 100%.
Currently, are reimbursed for a maximum of 6 attempts of artificial insemination Where 4 IVF attempts. The woman must be under the age of 43.
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